V. Developmental practice methods

Practitioners recognize the critical importance of developmental practice methods focused in child and youth care practice: Genuine Relationships, Health and Safety, Intervention Planning, Environmental Design and Maintenance, Program Planning and Activity Programming, Activities of Daily Living, Group Work, Counseling, Behavioral Guidance, Family (Caregiver) Engagement, Community Engagement. These are designed to promote optimal development for children, youth, and families including those at-risk and with special needs within the context of the family, community and the lifespan.

A. Foundational Knowledge

  • Health and safety
  • Intervention theory and design
  • Environmental design
  • Program planning and activity programming including:
    • Developmental rationales
    • Basic strategies of program planning
    • Specific developmental outcomes expected as a result of participating in activities
    • Principles of activity programming (e.g. activity analysis, adaptation, strategies for involving youth in activities)
    • Relationship of developmental processes to the activities of daily living (e.g. eating, grooming, hygiene, sleeping, rest)
    • The significance of play activities
    • Community resources for connecting children, youth and families with activity and recreational programs
  • Behavioral guidance methods including conflict resolution, crisis management, life space interviewing
  • Behavior management methods
  • Counseling skills
  • Understanding and working with groups
  • Understanding and working with families
  • Understanding and working with communities

B. Professional Competencies

1. Genuine Relationships

a. recognize the critical importance of genuine relationships based on empathy and positive regard in promoting optimal development for children, youth, and families

b. forming, maintaining and building upon such relationships as a central change strategy

2. Health and Safety

a. environmental safety

(1)  participate effectively in emergency procedures in a specific practice setting and carry them out in a developmentally appropriate manner

(2)  incorporate environmental safety into the arrangement of space, the storage of equipment and supplies and the design and implementation of activities

b. health

(1)  access the health and safety regulations applicable to a specific practice setting, including laws/ regulations related to disability

(2)  use current health, hygiene and nutrition practices to support health development and prevent illness

(3)  discuss health related information with children, youth and families as appropriate to a specific practice setting

c. medications

(1)  access current information on medications taken by clients in a specific practice site

(2)  describe the medication effects relevant to practice

(3)  describe the rules and procedures for storage and administration of medication in a specific practice site, and participate as appropriate

d. infectious diseases

(1) access current information on infectious diseases of concern in a specific practice setting

(2) describe the components relevant to practice

(3) employ appropriate infection control practices

3. Intervention planning

a. assess strengths and needs

b. plan goals and activities which take agency mission and group objectives, individual histories and interests into account

c. encourage child/youth and family participation in assessment and goal setting in intervention planning and the development of individual plans

d. integrate client empowerment and support of strengths into conceptualizing and designing interventions

e. develop and present a theoretical/empirical rational for a particular intervention or approach

f. select and apply an appropriate planning model

g. select appropriate goals or objectives from plans, and design activities, interactions, and management methods that support plans in an appropriate way

h. work with client and team to assess and monitor progress and revise plan as needed

4. Environmental Design and Maintenance

a. recognize the messages conveyed by environment

b. design and maintain planned environments which integrate developmental, preventive, and interventive requirements into the living space, through the use of developmentally and culturally sensitive methodologies and techniques

c. arrange space, equipment and activities in the environment to promote participation and prosocial behavior, and to meet program goals

d. involve children, youth and families appropriately in space design, and maintenance

 5. Program Planning and Activity Programming

a. connect own childhood activity experiences and skills, and adult interests and skills, to current work

b. teach skills in several different domains of leisure activity

c. assist clients in identifying and developing theirs strengths through activities and other experiences

d. design and implement programs and activities which integrate age, developmental, preventive, and/or interventive requirements and sensitivity to culture and diversity

e. design and implement challenging age, developmentally, and cultural and human diversity appropriate activity programs

(1) perform an activity analysis

(2)  assess clients interests, knowledge of and skill level in various activities

(3)  promotes clients participation in activity planning

(4)  select and obtain resources necessary to conduct a particular activity or activity program

(5)  perform ongoing (formative) and outcome (summative) evaluation of specific activities and activity programs

f. adapt activities for particular individuals or groups

g. locate and critically evaluate community resources for programs and activities and connect children, youth, and families to them

6. Activities of Daily Living

a. integrate client’s need for dignity, positive public image, nurturance, choice, self management, and privacy into activities of daily living

b. design and implement, and support family members and caregivers to implement, activities of daily living, which integrate age, developmental, preventive, and/or interventive requirements and sensitivity to culture and diversity

(1)  age and cultural and human diversity appropriate clothing

(2)  pleasant and inviting eating times that encourage positive social interaction

(3)  age and developmentally appropriate rest opportunities

(4)  clean and well maintained bathroom facilities that allow age and developmentally appropriate privacy and independence

(5)  personal space adequate for safe storage of personal belongings and for personal expression through decorations that do not exceed reasonable propriety

c. design and maintain inviting, hygienic and well maintained physical environments and equipment and supplies which positively support daily activities

d. encourage development of skills in activities of daily living

(1)  personal hygiene and grooming skills

(2)  developing and maintaining of areas related to daily living (e.g. maintaining living space, preparing and serving meals, cleanup)

(3)  socially appropriate behavior in activities of daily living: respecting other’s privacy, expected grooming and dress for various occasions

7. Group Process

a. assess the group development and dynamics of a specific group of children and youth

b. use group process to promote program, group, and individual goals

c. facilitate group sessions around specific topics/issues related to the needs of children/youth

d. mediate in group process issues

8. Counseling

a. recognize the importance of relationships as a foundation for counseling with children, youth and families

b. has self awareness and uses oneself appropriately in counseling activities

c. able to assess a situation in the milieu or in individual interaction and select the appropriate medium and content for counseling

d. able to make appropriate inquiry to determine meaning of a particular situation to a child

e. assist other adults, staff, parents and caregivers in learning and implementing appropriate behavioral support and instruction

f. employ effective problem solving and conflict resolution skills

9. Behavior Guidance

a. assess client behavior including its meaning to the client

b. design behavioral guidance around level of clients understanding

c. assess the strengths and limitations of behavioral management methods

d. employ selected behavioral management methods, where deemed appropriate

e. assist other adults, staff, and parent and caregivers in learning and implementing appropriate behavioral guidance techniques and plans

f. give clear, coherent and consistent expectations; sets appropriate boundaries

g. evaluate and disengage from power struggles

h. employ genuine relationship to promote positive behavior

i. employ developmental and cultural/diversity understandings to promote positive behavior

j. employ planned environment and activities to promote positive behavior

k. employ at least one method of conflict resolution

l. employ principles of crisis management

(1) describe personal response to crisis situations

(2) describe personal strengths and limitations in responding to crisis situations

(3) take self protective steps to avoid unnecessary risks and confrontations

(4) dress appropriately to the practice setting

(5) employ a variety of interpersonal and verbal skills to defuse a crisis

(6) describe the principles of physical interventions appropriate to the setting

(7) conduct a life space interview or alternative reflective debriefing

10. Family and Caregiver Engagement

a. communicate effectively with family members

b. partner with family in goal setting and designing and implementing developmental supports and/or interventions

c. identify client and family needs for community resources and supports

d. support family members in accessing and utilizing community resources

e. advocate for and with family to secure and/or maintain proper services

11. Community Engagement

a. access up to date information about service systems, support and advocacy resources, and community resources, laws, regulations, and public policy

b. develop and sustain collaborative relationships with organizations and people

c. facilitate client contact with relevant community agencies